CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF BALI, INDONESIA
(Entire Island of Bali)
Residents: 3,809,757 (2010)
Domestic Visitors: 8,735,633
International Visitors: 5,697,739
Total Visitors: 14,433,372 (2017)
The cultural landscape of Bali consists of five rice terraces and their water temples covering some 19,500 hectars. The terraces are part of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak, that dates back to the 9th century.
Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The subak reflects the philosophical concept of Tri Hita Karana, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchange between Bali and India over the past 2,000 years and has shaped the landscape of Bali.
The subak system of democratic and egalitarian farming practices has enabled the Balinese to become the most prolific rice growers in the archipelago despite the challenge of supporting a dense population.